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Are we there yet?

Evaluating Accessibility of 360-Degree Video

By Michael Taylor, Learning Technologist and Project Developer, University of Nottinghan.

The goal was to understand if the video met current Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WGAC 2.1) for users with disabilities and if there was a need for developing a supplementary compliant HTML based version of the home visit. The decision to develop a second resource was based on the team’s research findings. The evaluation was supported by consulting with immersive accessibility experts working in UK academia.

Screenshot from 360 video solution.
Screenshot from the 360-degree video resource produced by University of Nottingham.


The evaluation team held interviews with two Nottingham University students who had disabilities. One had a physical impairment and the other had neurological differences.

The students were asked:

  • for their general thoughts on working with the 360 resource?
  • how accessible was the secondary HTML resource compared to the 360-video?
  • which resource they thought was most useful for learning and why?

During 90-minute sessions, the students used think-aloud methodology to provide feedback while interacting with both the 360-degree and HTML resources. Researchers observed and recorded the session whilst taking notes.

The sessions also focused on the four key WGAC 2.1 requirements: compatibility with assistive technology, keyboard navigation/controls, captions/transcripts and audio descriptions.

After providing feedback on both resources the students were asked to complete a Fokides & Arvaniti accessibility questionnaire.

Key Findings

  • Both students found the 360-degree video immersive and realistic but had issues with lack of pause feature and small interface elements.
  • The HTML secondary version provided clearer expectations and objectives. Both participants commenting that its interactive elements were easier to use.
  • Students were unfamiliar with accessibility features like audio descriptions. This likely contributed to lack of feedback in those areas.
  • Although the HTML secondary resource did fully meet WGAC 2.1 accessibility standards. It raised further questions around the overhead in terms of time and expense in providing a secondary resource. This aligns with the broader challenges in making 360-degree video accessible.


  • Consider accessibility early in 360-degree video development, not as an afterthought. Research tools thoroughly.
  • Current off-the-shelf tools may not allow full WCAG 2.1 compliance. Additional resources may be needed, despite added time and cost.
  • Help educate users on accessibility features in 360-degree video. Lack of awareness poses a barrier.
  • Conduct further outreach to users with diverse disabilities during evaluation. Sample size was a limitation of this study.


While 360-degree video offers rich educational experiences, more work is needed to make it inclusive for all learners. Accessibility must be a priority from the outset when developing immersive media tools and content.

Read more about the 360 cases in this project.

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Test of LIVE 360° video

While the rest of the project group was gathered in a meeting room on campus at the University of Stavanger, Screen Story’s Stian Skjerping went downtown Stavanger to demonstrate how 360° video can be used LIVE and with very little equipment.

The equipment used:

  • Clip on microphone (Lavalier)
  • Mobile phone with 4G for streaming to YouTube
  • Insta360 camera

Watch the test in the video below. Navigate the image 360 degrees by using your computer mouse. Please note that you can only hear Stian Skjerping’s part of the dialogue with the rest of the project group.

The actual test starts 4:50 into this video.

Read more about the project meeting in Stavanger.

The project story

Turku UAS students with thesis subjects related to 360° video

Many topics prepared the future nurses in treating a special patient group such as toddler after a tonsillectomy, a heart-attack patient, or young people with a physical trauma. Also, challenging behaviour like violence or anxiety can be prepared for using 360° video. Part of the students developed a manuscript as a part of their thesis.

Altogether 23 students focused on 360° video-related subjects in their thesis. One was a Master’s thesis and the 13 others a Bachelor’s thesis.

Thesis results in blogs

The students summarized their thesis learnings in a blog – and you can visit them through the links below.

Some internet browsers have a translator function that enables reading the Finnish text in the default language.


Recent articles

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Overcoming phobias with 360º video technology

By Stian Skjerping, Screen Story

Illustration photo.

A New Approach to Treatment

Phobias are a type of anxiety disorder that can be debilitating for those who suffer from them. They are characterised by an intense and irrational fear of a specific object, situation, or activity.

Phobias can be triggered by a variety of things, including animals, heights, flying, and social situations. Traditional treatment for phobias involves exposure therapy, where patients are gradually exposed to the object of their fear.

Taking a participant to many different real environments is expensive, time-consuming, and logistically challenging.

By utilising 360° videos and virtual reality, individuals can be exposed to their phobia by using a Virtual Reality-headset.

This technology enables patients to experience their fear in a realistic and immersive way, without the need to visit other places.

Exposure therapy using 360° videos can therefore be a cost-effective alternative to real environments.

One of the key benefits of 360° video technology is that it can be customised to meet the needs of each patient. The therapist can control the level of exposure, gradually increasing it as the patient becomes more comfortable. This allows patients to progress at their own pace, without feeling overwhelmed or anxious.

It also allows to treat a wide range of phobias. Whether the patient has a fear of spiders, heights, or public speaking, the technology can be adapted to meet their needs.

By providing a virtually safe and controlled environment for patients to confront their fears, this technology can make it easier and more effective for patients to overcome their phobias.

As the technology continues to evolve, it is likely that we will see more and more therapists incorporating it into their treatment plans.

News The project story

Beta version of 360 editor tool

By Jaime Díaz González, Software engineer at Quasar Dynamics.

Read more about the background for creating the 360 video editor for teaching purposes in this article.

Here’s an update on the progress of the tool!

Development phase

After the first mockup designs, we performed several usability tests with our teachers that were truly constructive. Gathering all the feedback in this phase is crucial to have a shorter development time. As you may know, it is easier to make changes on a design rather than on code already implemented.

We updated our design to adapt the teachers’ feedback into it, in order to have the most effective platform. We are pretty happy with the final result, and we think it will be intuitive to everyone. Our current tool is on the Alpha phase, it still needs some fixes to be applied but we can already check most of the features.


Let’s break down the most important functionalities:


After signing in you will be redirected to the home page. Here we wanted to have a YouTube like design. The main idea is that the tool is a repository of public and private 360 videos published by teachers. You will find a search bar where you can filter by specialties, type of file (360 videos or images) and multiple sorting filters (relevance, alphabetic, date…)

Home screen with several videos.

Course selection

After you have found the right course to take, you can select it to view more details of it. For instance, you can see a brief description of it, the creator’s name, added date and the main categories.

You can see the course details and press on “Start course”.

360º images and videos

After accessing the course, students will be able to visualize 360º environments both in image and video format, with HotSpots created by the teacher, with useful information like: Text, videos, images and questionnaires.

When you click on a hotspot, you will unfold all the contents of it:

Example of an unfolded hotspot with different sections.

In each video, for each frame, students will be able to see all the hotspots that have been added by the teachers and be able to review them whenever they want:

List of hotspots inside the 360 video.

Teacher functionalities

As teacher you will have access to more features. You can check all the courses you have created on your profile:

Teacher profile including her/his courses.

It also includes a panel with all your students’ grades, depending on the course they enrolled and statistics about which topics were the most interesting ones for them.

Teacher’s overview over the students’ grades.
Statistics over top courses categories from your students

Course creation

Finally, it is very important to mention how a teacher can create a course. The basic steps are:

1. Choose the title and select the category

2. Add a video or an image: you will have to click on Add new file.

3. When you click on it, a panel will be displayed where you can upload the file you want to be displayed in 360º.

4. Select the frame where you want to add new hotspots.

5. By clicking on Add new hotspot, you will be able to add interactions to the frames you want. The hotspot can be dragged where you think there should be an information point and you can add a title, relevant information, videos, images, and questionnaires.

Try it yourself

That is basically it! We hope that you find it interesting. You can briefly try the tool by clicking the button:

Previous posts

News The project story

360ViSi cases available on HELM Open

Screenshot from the Helm Open repository.

The 360ViSi project has developed several cases on 360° video training in health education, and project partner University of Nottingham (UoN) has published them on the HELM Open platform.

HELM Open is an open online repository of learning objects for healthcare featuring over 200 free to use high quality, interactive peer-reviewed learning and teaching resources!

HELM stands for Health E-Learning and Media and is a UoN team that aims to provide expertise and support in the development, design, evaluation and research of technological and media-based educational materials and interventions in health.

University of Nottingham’s e-learning resources are designed around the principles of the ‘reusable learning object’ or RLO. These are web-based resources that consist of a mixture of multimedia elements such as audio, text, images and video and which engage the learner in interactive learning through the use of activities and assessments.

The 360ViSi cases on HELM Open can be found here:

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The project story

Software review: Adobe Captivate

An easy-to-use software

By Esther Navarro, Nursing programme leader at UCV

Adobe Captivate is a software program that is used for creating e-learning content, such as interactive presentations, online courses, and simulations. It is highly regarded in the e-learning industry because it is easy to use and has a wide range of features that allow users to create professional-quality content. Some of the features that make Adobe Captivate a great program include:

  • Drag-and-drop interface: Adobe Captivate has a user-friendly interface that allows users to easily create and edit e-learning content by dragging and dropping various elements onto the canvas.
  • Responsive design: Adobe Captivate automatically adjusts the layout of the content to fit different screen sizes and resolutions, ensuring that it looks great on desktop computers, tablets, and smartphones.
  • Multimedia support: Adobe Captivate allows users to incorporate various types of media, such as videos, audio, and images, into their e-learning content, making it more engaging and interactive.
  • Advanced interaction options: Adobe Captivate provides a wide range of options for adding interactive elements to e-learning content, such as quizzes, surveys, and games, which can help to keep learners engaged.
  • Accessibility: Adobe Captivate includes features that make it easier for users to create accessible e-learning content that can be used by learners with disabilities.

Overall, Adobe Captivate is a powerful and user-friendly programme that is well-suited for creating professional-quality e-learning content.

Screenshot of Adobe Captivate dashboard in use.
Screenshot from UCV Valencia’s e-learning project produced with Adobe Captivate.

360ViSi editors

The 360ViSi project is also developing two brand new editors based on the needs discovered by educators in the project.

Read more about them here:

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News The project story

360ViSi presented on INTED2023

Inted is an international technology, education and development conference held annually in Valencia, Spain. Every year more than 700 delegates from 80 different countries attend to share experiences and learn from other experts.

Representatives from all the partner universities in the project contributed to the session. See overview of the topics covered in the 1,5-hour long session below.


Session chair: Esther Navarro-Illana. Catholic University of Valencia (SPAIN)


A. Lokken, H. Wharrad, T. Nurmela, G. Sancha, E. Navarro-Illana


K. Whittingham, H. Wharrad, M. Taylor


B. Bø, M.L.A. Larsen, K. Spanne, I. Tjoflåt


T. Nurmela, T. Leinonen, T. Franck, J. Saarinen, N. Laivuori, J. Aho


D. Fernandez-Garcia, E. Navarro-Illana, C. Ferrer-Albero, O. Forero-Rincón, L. Estivalis-Torrent, D. Sancho-Cantus, F.J. Sancho-Pelluz


M. Taylor, A. Hill, H. Wharrad, K. Whittingham

Aftermovie from INTED

This video will give you an impression of the size and impact of the INTED event.

The project story

Listen to our podcast

Project partner Screen Story is in charge of the podcast.

The podcast will cover different aspects of 360 video and feature invited guests for discussions about opportunities and limitations with this technology.

The project story

Screen Story’s workshop

Screen Story is a Norwegian film company with eight offices and 50 employees. The Stavanger office decided to host a digital workshop to share with the entire company what their participation in the 360ViSi project involves.

Stian Skjerping from Screen Story presenting the 360ViSi project, as well as the opportunities and challenges of using 360 technology.

Stian Skjerping and Pål Berg Mortensen were in charge of the session.

The workshop features:

  • Presentation of the 360ViSi project and Screen Story’s involvement
  • Description of Screen Story’s cases
  • Discovered opportunities – and challenges
  • Description of methods and equipment used
  • Presentation of different kind of 360 cameras
  • …and more!

Watch the workshop here

(English subtitles)