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Demonstrated immersive reality on Valencia StartUp Market

VLC Startup Market is an event organised by the Innovative Development Area of the Valencia City Council. The goal is to create a great showcase for startups, thus bringing all the innovation and technology that is developed in València closer to the public.

From Quasar Dynamic’s exhibition stand.

360ViSi partner Quasar Dynamics was one of the exhibitors, and also developed a promotional 360° where Pilar Bernabé, the councilor for economic development in Valencia, presents the event.

Quasar Dynamic also created a virtual reality futuristic environment where the public could access information about the startup market, such as map, programme, exhibitors, events etc. In order to interact with the menu, the user just had to stare at the different elements.

See a video of what they created here:

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Realistic training to improve quality of ward rounds

The daily surgical ward round in a hospital is an important arena for interprofessional collaboration and communication between physicians, nurses, and patients. To be a skilled interprofessional team worker is an important learning outcome in the nurse education program. That is why University of Stavanger has developed an interactive 360° training environment for nursing students. Important factors in this tool are to help the nursing students to achieve clear communication and good cooperation, as well as awareness about the process and roles in the current setting.

Professor Ingrid Tjoflåt preparing for the 360° shoot.
Monitoring the camera input on the connected ipad.

“We want the nursing students to learn to take an active role and “speak up” during the rounds. The nursing students and the nurses are more in contact with the patients than the physicians, so their knowledge about the patient condition is very important during rounds,” says Ingrid Tjoflåt, professor at Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Stavanger.

The solution can also be used by wards to increase awareness about ward rounds and facilitate discussions on how to handle them.

Four cases in one ward

The interactive training solution takes the nursing students into a surgical ward with four patients. The ward is presented using a 360° image and the interaction takes place through hotspots connected to each patient. A hotspot is an effect that is clickable to the user, for instance text boxes, videos etc.

In this case, the hotspots provide the user with information about the patients’ condition, and medical progress. In addition, the user is given tasks or questions designed to encourage reflections and discussions. With one of the patients, a video of communication between the patient, the physician and the nurse is shown.

Test the training environment here.

“We want nursing students who are about to embark on their clinical practice period to use this training environment as a preparation. It could also be used by educators as part of the clinical supervision of nursing students. The solution is simple but effective. It is obvious what we want the student to learn, which is important to the learning process,” Tjoflåt explains.

Effective production of 360° training environment

Producing this training environment was done very effectively. Due to thorough planning, the recording of images and video only took two hours. It is easy to develop the solution further with new diagnoses and updated information.

Read more about the process for creating 360° learning experiences

Preparations in advance:

  • A detailed script
  • Two planning meetings
  • Quality assurance and feedback about the script from nurses and physician on a surgical ward
  • Communicating the script and plans to actors

After the recording:

  • Creating and filling in material for the hotspots

Research project

The training environment will be part of a planned research project, where the goal is to evaluate how 360 video simulation cases from a hospital surgical ward round can ensure nursing students’ knowledge and confidence during the nursing training. Moreover, to explore how nurse educators at the Bachelor program in Nursing at the University of Stavanger (UiS) perceive 360 video simulations as a learning tool.

Check out the training environment yourself!

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Developing the 360°ViSi Player: a status

When the simulation has been made in the editor, a tool for output where the user can watch and take actions in the simulation is needed. This is the 360°Player, which is being created by project partner ADE Ltd. Read more about it here.

Screenshots from the 360 ViSi Player, which is under development.

Status of the simulation player

The next step for the team is testing of the tool’s nodes in the player; that is the questions, choices and information which will lead the user through different paths in the simulation.

The goal is that the player will be compatible to most internet browsers, and that it includes ways for teachers to evaluate the student’s results and progression. This is some of the work that still must be completed.

During development, several issues have arisen which will have to be solved or decided upon: Where will the player be located and how will users access it? How will the player import the server simulations? Who will have control over the player and manage the data? Will there be need for registration to use it, and how should results be exported to or by teachers?

We will let you know when all the pieces of the puzzle are in place – and show you how it works.

In the meantime, you can learn more about the 360°Editor and Player in this demo by Turku UAS and ADE.

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Testing the 360ViSi Editor

This is one of the 360° video scenes in the Turku University of Applied Sciences’ virtual, interactive recovery room simulation. All the videos contain different phases, symptoms and statuses of patient care, that the nursing student has to interpret when practising perioperative care.

In this case, the 360° videos are built around a patient recovering from an appendectomy, but they can be applied to any learning situation. The recovery room case is just a practising tool to develop further the 360ViSi Editor constructed by Turku UAS staff as a part of the 360ViSi project.

Benefits of virtual simulation

Unlike a face-to-face simulation, a virtual one has numerous benefits. It allows the student to practice in real-like surroundings regardless of the time, place and schedules of other students and staff members. One part of the learning experience is to answer situation-related quizzes and to react to a patient’s symptoms. Answers and reactions gather data that enables giving individual and immediate feedback to the student.

Testing – a vital part of developing

At one of the Turku UAS’ meeting rooms, the nursing teachers tested the editor for the first time. As the Editor is still in the making, the task was seen as a bit complex. Working with an unfinished product may take the tester’s attention to technical challenges at the expense of content and fluency of the simulation.

To smoothen the path, the developers’ representative, who also happens to be the actor representing the patient in the videos, and the nursing teachers, who have written the simulation case, took the chance to meet face-to-face.

The goal is to make the 360ViSi Editor user interface so simple, that any teacher with just very basic IT-skills and some 360° videos, would be able to use it to create a 360-simulation. To develop the 360ViSi Editor further, a change of perspective is needed.

They will go through the simulation, create quizzes and check that the linking between videos tasks is logical. Next, the nursing teachers get to step into a student’s shoes and think of the simulation experience from their point of view. Progress needs feedback and ideas, and that is what the teachers are skilled at.

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360ViSi presented in Croatia

The 360ViSi project team was invited to the EU-CONEXUS PhD summer school in Zadar, Croatia, where the University of Zadar provided special training for PhD students about Professional and Scientific Communication and Networking in Multidisciplinary Environment.

Dr Esther Navarro (third from the right) from The Catholic University of Valencia, presented the 360ViSi project in Croatia.

The summer school had an interdisciplinary approach to research with practical examples for mind-mapping. The programme consisted of seminars and workshops held by experts, project proposals presentations, lessons on defining multidisciplinary projects proposals to fit the EU policies and the call rules and training about scientific communication and tools, resources and tips.

Dr Esther Navarro presenting the 360ViSi project in Croatia.

360ViSi: an international and interdisciplinary example

One of the invited lecturers was Dr Esther Navarro from The Catholic University of Valencia, who presented the 360ViSi project as an example of interdisciplinary research and teamwork.

Navarro portrayed the project as an example of how a team consisting of lecturers from different European universities, technicians and companies work together in the field of new technologies.

The project team works on several tasks. First, it provides teaching and learning tools to higher education using new methodologies. The second task is to develop solutions and content for e-learning, which is carried out by the universities’ and companies’ technicians. The third focus point is to provide new business opportunities for companies that elaborate services, products and technologies related to learning.

The 360ViSi team was introduced by presenting the different universities, tech groups and companies, the existing relationship among some of the members, the needs that originated our project, the type of project that it was and what it was about, needs and competencies within the partnership, interdisciplinarity within the team, barriers for interdisciplinary collaboration and adopted solutions.

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Filming a 360° community nurse scenario in the Covid era

An 83-year-old mother and a best friend, who is also a retired community nurse, agreed to take part.

Before filming, it was important to ensure the home environment reflected the details in the script, all the necessary equipment was in place to meet the clinical scenario requirements and that the ‘actors’ were comfortable with the scenario expectations. In the 83-year-old’s case, the necessity to appear dishevelled was possibly the biggest challenge of all!

Learning points from filming ‘on location’

1. Have a very detailed specification for filming each of the scenes including the following elements:

  • Positioning of actors and equipment in the scene
  • Lighting in the room
  • Where the person filming will be positioned
  • Ensure the actors are aware of the sequencing of each scene and give them a script to prompt what they need to do/say is really helpful
  • Equipment list including technical e.g., camera, stand, microphones, lighting, batteries

2. Visit the filming location beforehand to check out the space, potential issues (as far as possible – some can’t be predicted!). Also, if you are filming outdoors, it is important to check weather reports well in advance of any date decided for the shoot. As filming 360 video outside in the rain is not advisable.

3. Prepare your equipment in advance and make sure you have spare memory cards, batteries etc, and check everything is working beforehand. It is useful to create a checklist to make sure you don’t forget anything before travelling to your location. Get to the location in plenty of time to set up.

4. For our shoot we used the following equipment:

  • Insta 360 One R camera
  • iPhone 11with Insta 360 app installed (app available for IOS and Android phones)
  • Bushman panoramic monopod V2 – weighted tripod stand
  • Insta 360 selfie-stick & tripod
  • 2 lavalier lapel mics & 2 Sennheiser mobile body packs and receivers
  • Zoom H6 recorder
  • 2 x 128gb SanDisk Extreme A2 micro-SD cards (for 360 camera)
  • 2 x 32gb SanDisk Extreme PRO SDXC (For Zoom – audio)
  • 2 packets of replacement AA & AAA batteries
  • 1 x Heaphones

The kit above is very portable and mostly fits (complete with travel cases) into a medium sized backpack.

Sound: We could have relied on the built-in microphone within the 360 camera for our audio and further reduced the required kit, but we already owned zoom and lapel mics and wanted to try and get the best sound possible. (Remember when using external audio equipment to provide an identifiable noise such as a handclap at the start of each clip once all devices are set to record. This helps when aligning/syncing the external audio with the video clip during editing).

Lighting: We decided not to take any lighting and rely on house lighting and portable table and floor lamps for indoor scenes. This worked well and looked natural and as part of the furniture when viewed in shot.

Remote control: We used the iPhone to take still photos of equipment and control the camera remotely but could have downloaded the Insta 360 app onto almost any type of smartphone.

Tripod: We did invest in the weighted tripod, this is advisable as other tripods we experimented with offered little resistance to even the slightest amount of breeze and could easily fall over, which could seriously damage the camera and at very least ruin the shot. The weighted tripod has also been designed to work well with 360 video cameras and leaves very little stand footprint to remove during editing.

Monopod: We also used the monopod for a motion shot with the nurse holding the camera at arm’s length whilst entering the house. Shots such as this can cause motion sickness when viewed in headset, but this one seems to be working.

Frame rate: It was decided that we would use the higher quality HDR mode setting for stills and all scenes were shot in 5.7k. at 30fps.

5. Remember with 360 you are shooting blind – be prepared for re-takes in an uncontrolled environment. We had family members walking downstairs into the shot, a cat walking through the front door! Tell your participants that this may happen when they agree to take part in the filming. If they have not learned a script, they have to keep remembering what they said or should be saying in the scene.

6. Remember when you are filming 360 the field of view is much wider than in usual filming – things or people you think are out of shot are sometimes in. We took advantage of natural hiding places such as the hedge in the front garden and the alleyway next to the garage to remain safely out of shot for the outside scenes. We monitored each scene via the Insta 360 phone app which was installed on the Iphone.

7. Take lots of batteries. A battery-operated kit is great to get the flexibility in how the scenes are filmed and for ease of use by the operator, but it is also useful to have an assistant to check battery levels in the different pieces of kit.

8. We had one professional technologist filming the scenes – with two assistants helping to set up the scenes, look after the actors/actresses and check batteries. It is important to check that the actors or any important information that you wish to include in your video is not captured in the camera’s stich-line. Having more than one person checking that each scene is correctly set-up is extremely useful.

9. Our participants in the film were an older family member (as the patient) and a district nurse (playing the district nurse) – they were not trained actors but were confident at role play. They read the specification of the scenes and activities beforehand but did not memorise a script but ad-libbed the scenes. This worked well in this case, but it is important to select performers who are confident to do this.

Have a look at our other tips on how to produce interactive 360° video for education.

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Developed editor and player for 360° video

The new tools were recently demonstrated in an online workshop. See video from the workshop at the bottom of the page for a detailed explanation of the tools.

The Editor

The purpose of the 360ViSi Editor, created by the Finnish 360Visi project partners Turku University of Applied Sciences, is to create a simulation by connecting short 360° videos. This is done by compiling nodes, the basic building blocks, together with actions that trigger the next activity based on the players choice.

The beauty of the tool is that it gives the user the possibility to create whatever construction the user needs or wants. Some editing is possible in the editor, for example, clipping and looping videos. What adds interest to it, are the features such as providing the player with additional information in the form of pictures of texts, a randomizer that chooses the next step on behalf of the player and questionnaires enabling to test the players’ learning.

The tool simply takes in the JSON files produced in the 360°ViSi Editor and publish them on the internet.

The player

With the 360°ViSi Player, created by another 360ViSi project partner, a Finnish company ADE Ltd, the simulation creator proceeds to the part of publishing the content.

The tool takes in the JSON files produced in the 360°ViSi Editor and gives the user an interface to play through the simulation.

360°ViSi Player works on a browser, enabling to publish simulations on the internet and use them with multiple different devices ranging from mobile phones to VR headsets. The idea with this tool too, is to offer a simple and user-friendly interface. The user, usually a teacher, gets a link that can be shared with the players.

Want the detailed explanation? See the video of the demo here:

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Safe learning with a patient surgeon

Imagine standing in an operation theatre and handing instruments to a surgeon. To nursing students, the impression can be nerve-wracking and may cause them to choose another area of specialization.

To guarantee that the future is not lacking nurses with competence to work in this demanding field, Turku University of Applied Sciences has created a virtual 360° game that supports the students’ skills in identifying surgical instruments.

Nursing students testing the VR instrument game.

The game gives the students a boost in their competence and showcases the reality of working in an operating theatre.

“When turning my head, I saw the very realistic environment. I believe this game lowers the threshold to work in an operating theatre,” says Jasmine Pitkänen.

Pitkänen, a soon-to-be-graduate nursing student. Along with her classmates, she gave an estimation of the learning experience. With a bit more practice on the game, Jasmine would be ready to jump on the deep end.

Learning by doing was a rewarding method for the students. Instead of reading books or watching videos and learning passively, the students appreciated active practicing and experiencing the lifelike situation. Or like Mikko Kinnunen put it:

The experience was concrete, authentic and very realistic. I improved my score after rehearsing just once. When you practice, you learn.”

The students appreciated that, unlike books and videos, the game indicated incorrect answers. This feature along with the possibility to retry were seen as big bonuses from the learning point of view.

“If I handed a wrong instrument, it was made clear, and I got a chance to try again,” said Riikka Mörsky.

Instead of having the instruments explained as a list in a book, the game showed all the instruments at one glance. When reading about the topic, it did not occur to her, how the situation would look like in a real setting.

“If I had played this game at the beginning of my studies, I might have chosen to practice in an operating theatre.”

Valtteri Hannila appreciated the safe learning experience. Despite handing a wrong instrument several times, the surgeon stayed calm, and the rehearsal continued. In the real-life, a surgeon might not be as understanding. Playing in front of others added, however, more stress to the situation.

During their nursing studies, the students had played a learning game before, but this was the first VR learning game experience. Based on their practicing on the Instrument game, both the students’ experiences and attitudes towards the learning method were positive.

See video and interviews of the students testing the instrument game.

You may also find these stories interesting

The police student case – using 360° video in education

Specific needs for simulation tools in Health Education

User guide for creating interactive 360° video

Process for creating interactive 360° video for education

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Results The project story

Review of current literature on simulation training in Health Education



This literature review is a supporting study to a report on specific needs for simulation tools in Health Education. This report will be published at a later stage.

Feel free to download the litereture review below

You may also be interested in

See more results from the 360ViSi project

Tips about producing 360° video

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Specific needs for simulation tools in Health Education

There are different technologies that can facilitate digital learning for health sciences students in an immersive environment, such as virtual reality (VR), simulation or 360° video amongst others. These environments allow the student to interact with a virtual world through their immersion in a three-dimensional context with real experiences.

Immersive learning is used in various disciplines outside of Health sciences including engineering, mathematics, education, biology, neuroscience, psychology, computer science, communication, economics and business. It enables interaction in multidimensional environments and provides valuable tools to improve practice and theory in order to enhance and promote transformational learning. So, it is not only about technology but also about designing activities using the technology for students to learn in context, therefore increasing knowledge and improving skills and competencies.

Mapping out the landscape

One of the work packages in the 360Visi project sets out to find out how and where 360° video simulation advantageously can be used in Health education.

The main objective of the study is:

  • To identify specific proven areas in Health education where students will gain from 360° video simulation training.

In addition, the study has these specific objectives:

  • To analyse whether new technologies like 360° video are effective tools for student learning  
  • To identify needs for 360° video simulation training at the universities participating in the project

Please note that this is a short description of the study and its findings. We will publish the entire study at a later stage.

Methods

The following approaches were used in the study:

1.) Reviewing literature where simulation, 360° video, mobile phone applications, interactive video, telecare tools were used. The review included also 1b.) Information from the four universities participating in 360ViSi on their previous experience in the use of 360° video. Lastly 2.) A focus group of experts from each of the partner universities of the 360ViSi project, assessed the relevance, opportunity, effectiveness and feasibility of applying 360° technology in each of the areas of training in nursing education.

Literature review and previous experience

The evidence found from the literature review has shown that the use of new technologies in university teaching is already a reality that can benefit the learning of health sciences students. Specifically, the decrease in cost and the technological improvement on hardware in recent years have promoted the use of VR, AR or 360° video in this area of education.

The fact that students are able to have an experience before actual contact with a patient, either through real simulation or through virtual simulation, favours the consolidation of knowledge in a safer environment not only for the student but also the patient.

Of the four universities participating in the 360ViSi project, two of them have previous experiences with the use of 360° video technology in the teaching of health sciences students, and the other two universities had also developed technological solutions to improve the learning of their students.

Six areas for enhanced learning

The experts from the four participating universities each identified areas where use of 360° video would be relevant in health education and gave them scores to show which were most relevant.

  • Home care (Score 4)
  • Nursing care and procedures (Score 4)
  • Drug administration (Score 2)
  • Surgical care (preoperative, perioperative, postoperative) (Score 2)
  • Emergency and acute care (Score 3)
  • Ethics and communication (Score 2)

The score corresponds to how many of the universities have chosen that area as a priority for the application of 360° video technology. 

Within each of these areas, the experts found different items or competencies in which students could be trained using this technology and, also, enhance their learning. Each of them is detailed as follows:

Home Care

The experts highlighted the need to work on Home Care, particularly with the elderly, paying special attention to care related to injuries caused by falls. 

The possibility of working on correct decision-making in the patient’s home, especially in situations where there is palliative care involved in the home environment, was also underlined.

Another important aspect was the possibility of working on patient transfer (i.e. when transferring from/to their home and primary care or hospital facilities).

Nursing Care and Procedures

There is a mix of competencies that the experts have been emphasising, but they all have a point in common: the possibility for the student to acquire and incorporate practical skills and nursing care and procedures in a safe environment, through 360° technology, before their actual practice on real patients.

The need to enhance teamwork skills in nursing is emphasised, especially with the medical team during patient visits or ward rounds, which are necessary skills on all types of nursing care.

The importance of working on patient observation and clinical examinations of different kinds (assessment of the patient in pain, taking vital signs, knowledge of the clinical environment) has been highlighted by several universities. 

Different techniques in the care of pediatric and adult patients, such as cannulation or the care and prevention of ulcers or wounds, was also pointed out. 

Drug Administration

The experts emphasized the special benefit this technology could have for training in the work with drug administration – both for the administration of the medication, and also the organisation, drug preparation and drug round within the hospital environment.

360° technology can be a great tool for the student to effectively incorporate a systematic approach in their practice for the safe administration of medication. 

Surgical Care (preoperative, perioperative, postoperative care)

Even though it has only been pointed out by the experts from two of the universities, care related to the surgical environment lends itself very effectively to learning through 360° technology, as studies analysed in the first phase also have shown.

The experts highlighted the need to apply the 360° technology on training in pre-operative care, anesthesia nursing care, assisting the surgeon during the operation, patient preparation and nursing care in trauma surgery. 

Emergency and Acute Care

Three different areas have been identified within this item. Firstly, the need and importance of training on pre-hospital emergencies, given the property to rendering an image of the outdoors environment in 360° format enhances the teaching capacity in this area.

Secondly, hospital emergency/acute care, both in the emergency department and in the intensive care unit. Different needs were indicated in this field, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, care in patients with pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, sepsis, etc. Thirdly, the expert group also sees possibilities for learning about the care of the ventilated patient, both on the use of ventilators and on techniques related to aspiration of secretions as an example.

Ethics and Communication

The experts from two universities pointed out the suitability of the 360° video technology in the area of Ethics and Communication. Specifically, the possibility of training on breaking bad news was highlighted, as well as the holistic assessment of the patient, evaluating their needs in full, taking into account patient beliefs, diversity and cultural aspects. Communication and correct decision-making can also be skills to be acquired effectively through the use of 360° video.

Reinforcing learning and training with minimal risk

360 video and other immersive technologies has unique features that allow the user to train at their discretion in a safe and non-intrusive environment.

It is clear that there is unanimous belief among the experts from the participating universities in the 360ViSi project that certain areas of learning can be reinforced by 360° video technology in order to help students consolidate high standards in nursing care and health education.

The methods that bring the student closer to their future professional role, and in which they can learn by repetition, and correct mistakes as many times as they need with minimal risk, should become increasingly important in the teaching-learning process. Beyond that, 360° video technology will in an academic university environment still require teaching and supervision in real time and in groups. This is also a context where the technology can be explored for new ways of learning – where the instructor can control what students look at, to make them aware of and reflect on certain details, ask them questions or correct common mistakes.

Please note that this is a short description of the study and its findings. We will publish the entire study at a later stage.

Literature

Literature reviewed and applied in the full 360ViSi project study and analysis of Needs for simulation tools in Health Education:

  1. Ayala Pezzutti, R.J., Laurente Cárdenas, C.M., Escuza Mesías, C.D., Núñez Lira, L.A., Díaz Dumont, J.R., Ayala Pezzutti, R.J., et al. (2020). Mundos virtuales y el aprendizaje inmersivo en educación superior. Propósitos y Represent. 8(1).
  2. Kilmon, C.A., Brown, L., Ghosh, S., Mikitiuk, A. (2010). Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education. Nurs Educ Perspect. 31(5):314-317. 
  3. Kinio, A., Dufresne, L., Brandys, T., Jetty, P. (2017). Break Out of the Classroom: The Use of Escape Rooms as an Alternative Learning Strategy forSurgical Education. J Vasc Surg. 66(3):e76.   
  4. Akhtar, K., Sugand, K., Sperrin, M., Cobb, J., Standfield, N., Gupte, C. (2015).  Training safer orthopedic surgeons. Acta Orthop. 3 de septiembre de. 86(5):616-21. 
  5. Harris, D.J., Bird, J.M., Smart, P.A., Wilson, M.R., Vine, S.J. (2020). Un marco para la prueba y validación de entornos simulados en experimentación y entrenamiento. Fronteras en psicología11, 605. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00605 
  6. Jensen, L., & Konradsen, F. (2018). A review of the use of virtual reality head-mounted displays in education and training. Education and Information Technologies, 23(4), 1515-1529. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017- 9676-0 
  7. Falconer, C.J., Slater, M., Rovira, A., King, J.A., Gilbert, P., Antley, A., Brewin, C.R. (2014). Embodying compassion:

a virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive selfcriticism. PLoS One. 9, 11, e111933 

  • Tropea, Joanne & Johnson, Christina & Nestel, Debra & Paul, Sanjoy & Brand, Caroline & Hutchinson, Anastasia & Bicknell, Ross & Lim, Wen. (2019). A screen-based simulation training program to improve palliative care of people with advanced dementia living in residential aged care facilities and reduce hospital transfers: study protocol for the Improving Palliative care Education and Training Using Simulation in Dementia (IMPETUS-D) cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Palliative Care. 18. 10.1186/s12904-019-0474-x. 
  • Hanson, J., Andersen, P., Dunn, P.K. (2019). Effectiveness of three-dimensional visualisation on undergraduate nursing and midwifery students’ knowledge and achievement in pharmacology: A mixed methods study. Nurse Educ Today. 81:19-25. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2019.06.008 
  • Green, J., Wyllie, A., & Jackson, D. (2014). Virtual worlds: a new frontier for nurse education? Collegian (Royal College of Nursing, Australia), 21(2), 135–141. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25109212 
  • Tjoflåt, I., Brandeggen, T. K., Strandberg, E. S., Dyrstad, D. N., & Husebø, S. E. (2018). Norwegian nursing students’ evaluation of vSim® for Nursing. Advances in Simulation. 3(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41077-018-0070-9 
  • Harrington, C. M., Kavanagh, D. O., Wright Ballester, G., Wright Ballester, A., Dicker, P., Traynor, O., Tierney, S. (2018). 360° Operative Videos: A Randomised Cross- Over Study Evaluating Attentiveness and Information Retention. Journal of Surgical 

Education. 75(4), 993–1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2017.10.010 

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